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Important Terms (Updated: 12/31/2016)

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Important Terms (Updated: 12/31/2016)

Postby Mea quidem sententia » Mon Oct 03, 2016 9:50 pm

A theoretical object that absorbs all electromagnetic wavelengths and re-emits—but does not reflect—them in thermal equilibrium.

When gas vapor becomes a solid without first becoming a liquid.

The set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

A substance that conducts electric current. Most electrolytes must be dissolved in water or some other solvent. A battery contains an electrolyte in either a liquid or pasty solution.

Fuel cell
A battery-like device that stores energy in the form of compressed hydrogen.

Commonly known as "melting", fusion is a process where a solid becomes a liquid.

Massless particle
A particle with an invariant (rest) mass of zero. Photons are a commonly known massless particle.

A material, such as solid, liquid, gas, or plasma, which allows mechanical waves to travel.

An atom that carries an electric charge. If an atom gains an electron, it becomes negatively charged. If it loses an electron, the atom becomes positively charged.

Commonly thought of as visible light, light consists of quanta, spatially localized quanta known as photons. Light can range anywhere as far as radio waves to gamma rays.

Protons and neutrons make up nuclei, which is the core. Electrons move quickly around nuclei.

A closed, flat, two-dimensional object made up of three or more sides. While polygons are two-dimensional, they can create three-dimensional objects called polyhedra.

A solid, three-dimensional object consisting of polygonal faces.

Radioactive decay
The disintegration of an unstable atom that emits particles. Radiation from unstable atoms include alpha, beta, and gamma rays.

The emission or propagation of energy in the form of waves or particles. It needn't a medium to travel. (Not to be confused with radioactivity.)

Another word for"freezing", this process occurs when a liquid becomes a solid.

A scalar quantity with which only the rate is given.

When a solid becomes a gas without becoming a liquid.

A polygon consisting of three vertices and three sides. The fewest angles a polygon can have is three.

A vector quantity with which the rate and magnitude are given.
Mea quidem sententia
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